Homework 5

Due Monday, November 14th, 10:10am.

Problem 1

Consider the following grammar.

S -> UT      |  V "Int"  |  "Int"
T -> V "Int" |  "Int"
U -> S "=>"
V -> T ","

Consider the input to be “Int , Int ⇒ Int”.

  • Construct the CYK parsing table. Recall that each entry $d_{pq}$ of the CYK parsing table contains those non-terminals, that can be expanded to the word $w_{pq}$, i.e. the word from position $p$ to $q$, included.
  • Is the grammar ambiguous for the input?

Problem 2

Consider a productive grammar in Chomsky normal form which does not contain $\epsilon$, i.e. the grammar does not contain unproductive rules.
Assume the input consists of exactly $n$ tokens, i.e., the lexical analyzer returns $n$ tokens before hitting the EOF.

a) Assume there are $k$ productions of form A → BC and $l$ productions are of form A → a. By considering all the combinations of possible dot positions in the right-hand-side of a production and all different possible values of an item, compute the number of possible items.
Recall that an item is a tuple (X, p) where X is a dotted production and p the starting position.

b) Now consider the following grammar.

S -> AB
A -> BA
A -> a
B -> b

Determine which of the following items are possible and which are impossible during the parsing of an input with an Earley parser.

  • $(A\rightarrow a\bullet,n - 1)$
  • $(S\rightarrow AB\bullet,1)$
  • $(B\rightarrow b\bullet,4)$
  • $(A\rightarrow B\bullet A,2)$

Problem 3

Consider the following grammar:

E ::= E+E
E ::= E*E
E ::= E=E
E ::= Num | true | false

where Num represents integers.

a) Run Earley's parsing algorithm on the following input: 1=2*3=true. Give all the sets of items $S(i)$ that the parser computes.

b) How many parse trees do you obtain?

c) Write down those parse trees that are correct according to the following types:

+ : Int x Int→Int

* : Int x Int→Int

= : Bool x Bool → Bool

= : Int x Int → Bool

Problem 4

Consider the following class:

class Rectangle {
  var width: Int
  var height: Int
  var xPos: Int
  var yPos: Int
  def area: Int = {
    if(width > 0 && height > 0) 
      width * height
  def resize(maxSize: Int) {
    while(area > maxSize) {
      width = width / 2
      height = height / 2

a) Determine the environment of this class.
b) By giving the type derivation trees for each method show that this class type checks.

Problem 5

Determine if the following piece of codes type check according to the type rules.
Show all steps and give type derivation trees where applicable.

a) The class Array has a field length in which the length of the array is stored.

def swap(lst: Array[Int], a: Int, b: Int): Array[Int] = {
  if (a >= lst.length || b >= lst.length) lst else {
    val swap = lst(a)
    lst(a) = lst(b)
    lst(b) = swap


Recall that we have the two type rules:

  • If $C$ is a declared subclass of $D$, then $C <: D$
  • \begin{equation*}
      \frac{\Gamma \vdash t: C \quad\quad C<:D}{\Gamma \vdash t: D}

i) Give the type rule corresponding to new.
ii) Show this code typechecks.

class Shape
class Rectangle(width: Int, length: Int) extends Shape {
  def area : Int = width * length
class Square(length: Int) extends Rectangle(length,length)
new Square(5).area