# Frame Conditions and Invariants

## Motivation for Frame Conditions (Modifies Clauses)

Example procedure with globals x,y,z which increments x.

var x,y,z :: int;

proc inc()
requires y >= 0
ensures y = old(y) + 1
{ y = y + 1; }

proc test()
{
y = 0;
x = 2;
inc();
assert(x==2);
}

By rules so far in verification of test we consider

proc test()
{
y = 0;
x = 2;

var y1 = y;
assert(y >= 0);
havoc(x,y,z);
assume(y = y1 + 1);

assert(x==2);
}

More precise postcondition:

Problems:

• long to write
• specification must change every time we add variables

### Frame condition notation

proc inc()
requires y >= 0
modifies y
ensures y = old(y) + 1
{ y = y + 1; }

Note: no mention of x,z.

Meaning is the same as above.

Translation when analyzing procedure call:

## Meaning of Frame Conditions as Variable Lists

In general, for modifies clause and the set of variables , the 'ensures' clause receives additional postcondition ## Global Invariants as Shorthands

If we write

invariant I(x,y)

it means that the formula I(x,y) is implicitly conjoined with precondition and postcondition of each procedure in the program.

For example,

invariant x <= y & 0 <= x

means that x,y are non-negative and y is greater or equal to x, before and after each procedure invocation.

Consequence: the invariant must hold before and after each procedure call as well.

## Issues with Explicit Modifies Clauses

Using explicit modifies clauses in ListReverse.java

• must 'havoc' entire field, later restrict changes
• instantiable structures: using reachability to describe what was changed
• breaking encapsulation

Idea: use specification variables to make things simpler