This week you will implement type checking for Amy. The goal of type checking is to prevent certain errors based on the kind or shape of values that the program is manipulating. E.g. we should prevent an integer from being added to a boolean value.
Type checking is the last stage of the compiler frontend. Every program that reaches the end of this stage without an error is correct (as far as the compiler is concerned), and every program that does not is wrong. After type checking we are finally ready to interpret the program or compile it to binary code!
Typing rules for Amy are presented in detail in the Amy specification. Make sure to check correct typing for all expressions and patterns.
The current assignment focuses on the file
TypeChecker.scala. As usual, the skeleton and helper methods are given to you, and you will have to complete the missing parts. In particular, you will write a compiler phase that checks whether the expressions in a given program are well-typed and report errors otherwise.
To this end you will implement a simplified form of the Hindley-Milner (HM) type-inference algorithm that you heard about during the lectures. Note that while the Amy language doesn't actually present type inference as a feature to users, behind the scenes we will perform type inference. It is usually straightforward to adapt an algorithm for type inference to type checking, since one can add the user-provided type annotations to the set of constraints. This is what you will do with HM in this lab.
Compared to the presentation of HM type inference in class your type checker can be simplified in another way: Since Amy does not feature higher-order functions or polymorphic data types, types in Amy are always simple in the sense that they are not composed of arbitrary other types. That is, a type is either a base type (one of
String) or it is an ADT, which has a proper name (e.g.
Option from the standard library). In the latter case, all the types in the constructor of the an ADT are immediately known. For instance, the standard library's
List is really a list of integers, so we know that the
Cons constructor takes an
Int and another
As a result, your algorithm will never have to deal with complex constraints over type constructors (such as the function arrow
A ⇒ B). Instead, your constraints will always be of the form
T1 = T2 where
T2 are either simple types or type variables. This is most important during unification, which otherwise would have to deal with complex types separately.
Your task now is to a) complete the
genConstraints method which will traverse a given expression and collect all the necessary typing constraints, and b) implement the unification algorithm as
Familiarize yourself with the
TypeVariable data structures in
TypeChecker.scala and then start by implementing
genConstraints. The structure of this method will in many cases be analogous to the AST traversal you wrote for the name analyzer. Note that
genConstraints also takes an expected type. For instance, in case of addition the expected type of both operands should be
Int. For other constructs, such as pattern
matches it is not inherently clear what should be the type of each
case body. In this case you can create and pass a fresh type variable.
Once you have a working implementation of both
solveConstraints you can copy over your previous work on the interpreter and run the programs produced by your frontend! Don't forget that to debug your compiler's behavior you can also use the reference compiler with the
-interpret flag and then compare the output.
As usual, you can find the skeleton for this lab on Courseware. After merging it with your existing work, the structure of your project
src directory should be as follows:
amyc ├── Main.scala (updated) │ ├── analyzer │ ├── SymbolTable.scala │ ├── NameAnalyzer.scala │ └── TypeChecker.scala (new) │ ├── ast │ ├── Identifier.scala │ ├── Printer.scala │ └── TreeModule.scala │ ├── interpreter │ └── Interpreter.scala │ ├── parsing │ ├── ASTConstructor.scala │ ├── ASTConstructorLL1.scala │ ├── Parser.scala │ ├── Lexer.scala │ └── Tokens.scala │ └── utils ├── AmycFatalError.scala ├── Context.scala ├── Document.scala ├── Pipeline.scala ├── Position.scala ├── Reporter.scala └── UniqueCounter.scala
You have three weeks to complete this assignment (i.e., you can deliver this assignment after the quiz).
Deadline: Tuesday, December 4th, 23:59
Please use the Courseware interface to submit your solution and get some preliminary feedback from our automated tests.