# CYK Parsing Algorithm for General Context-Free Grammars

Assume the grammar is in Chomsky Normal Form.

Example Grammar

S ::= L R | S S | L X X ::= S R L ::= "{" R ::= "}"

Consider an input string

{ { } { } { } }

For each terminal t in input, for which non-terminal X is it the case that X ?

{ { } { } { } } length of substring L L R L R L R R 1 S S S 2 X 3 S S 4 X 5 S 6 X 7 S 8

For each string w of length 2 in input, for which non-terminal X is it the case that X ?

Dynamic programming algorithm: for each substring, determine which non-terminals can generate it.

Let be input word

Let d(i)(j) denote non-terminals deriving substring of from i to j.

CYK algorithm:

INPUT: word w, grammar G in Chomsky normal form OUTPUT: true iff (w in L(G)) N = |w| var d : Array[N][N] forall i in {1..N} { d(i)(i) = {X | G contains X->w(i)} for j in {i + 1 .. N} d(i)(j) = {} } for k = 2 to N // substring length for i = 0 to N-k // initial position for j = 1 to k-1 // length of first half for each (X::=Y Z) in G if Y in d(i)(i+j-1) and Z in d(i+j)(i+k-1) d(i)(j) = d(i)(j) union {X} return (S in d(0,N-1))

## A Programming Language Example

Consider this fragment of a grammar of language with references and procedure calls

statement ::= assign | call assign ::= expr "=" expr call ::= expr "." ID "(" expr ")" expr ::= ID | expr "." expr

Is this grammar LL(1)?

What is its Chomsky Normal Form?

Additional information:

## Number of Distinct Parse Trees

Let be the string

()()()

It has 2 parse trees

What is the number of parse trees for a string of the form where repeats times?

What is the running time of the CYK parser on this input?

How to generate one or all syntax trees?