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sav08:substitutions_for_first-order_logic [2008/03/19 16:04]
vkuncak
sav08:substitutions_for_first-order_logic [2015/04/21 17:30] (current)
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 It is important to be precise about substitutions in first-order logic. ​ For example, we would like to derive from formula $\forall x.F(x)$ formula $F(t)$, denoted $subst(\{x \mapsto t\})(F)$ that results from substituting a term $t$ instead of $x$.  For example, from $\forall x. x < x + 5$ we would like to derive $y - 1 < (y - 1) + 5$.  Consider, however formula It is important to be precise about substitutions in first-order logic. ​ For example, we would like to derive from formula $\forall x.F(x)$ formula $F(t)$, denoted $subst(\{x \mapsto t\})(F)$ that results from substituting a term $t$ instead of $x$.  For example, from $\forall x. x < x + 5$ we would like to derive $y - 1 < (y - 1) + 5$.  Consider, however formula
-\[+\begin{equation*}
     \forall x. \exists y. x < y     \forall x. \exists y. x < y
-\]+\end{equation*}
 Consider an interpretation in integers. ​ This formula is true in this domain. ​ Now substitute instead of x the term y+1.  We obtain Consider an interpretation in integers. ​ This formula is true in this domain. ​ Now substitute instead of x the term y+1.  We obtain
-\[+\begin{equation*}
     \exists y. y + 1 < y     \exists y. y + 1 < y
-\]+\end{equation*}
 This formula is false. ​ We say that the variable $y$ in term $y+1$ was captured during substitution. ​ When doing substitution in first-order logic we must avoid variable capture. ​ One way to do this is to rename bound variables. ​ Suppose we want to instantiate the formula ​ $\forall x. \exists y. x<y$ with $y+1$. ​ Then we first rename variables in the formula, obtaining This formula is false. ​ We say that the variable $y$ in term $y+1$ was captured during substitution. ​ When doing substitution in first-order logic we must avoid variable capture. ​ One way to do this is to rename bound variables. ​ Suppose we want to instantiate the formula ​ $\forall x. \exists y. x<y$ with $y+1$. ​ Then we first rename variables in the formula, obtaining
-\[+\begin{equation*}
     \forall x_1. \exists y_1. x_1 < y_1      \forall x_1. \exists y_1. x_1 < y_1 
-\]+\end{equation*}
 and then after substitution $\{x_1 \mapsto y+1\}$ we obtain $\exists y_1. y + 1 < y_1$, which is a correct consequence of $\forall x. \exists y. x < y$. and then after substitution $\{x_1 \mapsto y+1\}$ we obtain $\exists y_1. y + 1 < y_1$, which is a correct consequence of $\forall x. \exists y. x < y$.
 +
  
 ===== Naive and Safe Substitutions ===== ===== Naive and Safe Substitutions =====
Line 24: Line 25:
  
 We define naive substitution recursively,​ first for terms: We define naive substitution recursively,​ first for terms:
-\[\begin{array}{rcl}+\begin{equation*}\begin{array}{rcl}
 subst(\sigma)( x ) &=& \sigma( x ),\ \sigma \mbox{ d{}efined at } x \\ subst(\sigma)( x ) &=& \sigma( x ),\ \sigma \mbox{ d{}efined at } x \\
 subst(\sigma)( x ) &=& x,\ \sigma \mbox{ not d{}efined at } x \\ subst(\sigma)( x ) &=& x,\ \sigma \mbox{ not d{}efined at } x \\
 subst(\sigma)(f(t_1,​\ldots,​t_n)) &=& f(subst(\sigma)(t_1),​\ldots,​subst(\sigma)(t_n)) subst(\sigma)(f(t_1,​\ldots,​t_n)) &=& f(subst(\sigma)(t_1),​\ldots,​subst(\sigma)(t_n))
-\end{array}\]+\end{array}\end{equation*}
  
 and then for formulas: and then for formulas:
-\[\begin{array}{rcl}+\begin{equation*}\begin{array}{rcl}
   nsubst(\sigma)(R(t_1,​\ldots,​t_n)) &=& R(nsubst(\sigma)(t_1),​\ldots,​nsubst(\sigma)(t_n)) \\   nsubst(\sigma)(R(t_1,​\ldots,​t_n)) &=& R(nsubst(\sigma)(t_1),​\ldots,​nsubst(\sigma)(t_n)) \\
   nsubst(\sigma)(t_1 = t_2) &=& (nsubst(\sigma)(t_1) = nsubst(\sigma)(t_n)) \\   nsubst(\sigma)(t_1 = t_2) &=& (nsubst(\sigma)(t_1) = nsubst(\sigma)(t_n)) \\
-  nsubst(\sigma)(\lnot F) &=& \\ +  nsubst(\sigma)(\lnot F) &​=& ​\neg nsubst(\sigma)(F) ​\\ 
-  nsubst(\sigma)(F_1 \land F_2) &=& \\ +  nsubst(\sigma)(F_1 \land F_2) &​=& ​nsubst(\sigma)(F_1) \wedge nsubst(\sigma)(F_2) \\ 
-  nsubst(\sigma)(\forall x.F) &​=& ​ \\ +  nsubst(\sigma)(F_1 \lor F_2) &=& nsubst(\sigma)(F_1) \vee nsubst(\sigma)(F_2) ​\\ 
-  nsubst(\sigma)(\exists x.F) &​=& ​+  nsubst(\sigma)(\forall x.F) &​=& ​\forall x.\ nsubst(\sigma)(F)\\ 
 +  nsubst(\sigma)(\exists x.F) &​=& ​\exists x.\ nsubst(\sigma)(F)
 \end{array} \end{array}
-\]+\end{equation*}
  
 **Lemma:** Let $\sigma = \{x_1 \mapsto t_1,​\ldots,​x_n \mapsto t_n\}$ be a variable substitution and $t$ a term.  Then for every interpretation $I$, **Lemma:** Let $\sigma = \{x_1 \mapsto t_1,​\ldots,​x_n \mapsto t_n\}$ be a variable substitution and $t$ a term.  Then for every interpretation $I$,
-\[+\begin{equation*}
     e_T(nsubst(\sigma)(t))(I) = e_T(t)(I[x_1 \mapsto e_T(t_1)(I),​\ldots,​ x_n \mapsto e_T(t_n)(I)])     e_T(nsubst(\sigma)(t))(I) = e_T(t)(I[x_1 \mapsto e_T(t_1)(I),​\ldots,​ x_n \mapsto e_T(t_n)(I)])
-\]+\end{equation*}
  
-To avoid variable capture, we introduce in addition to $subst$ a safe substitution,​ $ssubst$. +To avoid variable capture, we introduce in addition to $subst$ a safe substitution,​ $sfsubst$. 
-\[+\begin{equation*}
 \begin{array}{rcl} \begin{array}{rcl}
   sfsubst(\sigma)(R(t_1,​\ldots,​t_n)) &=& R(nsubst(\sigma)(t_1),​\ldots,​nsubst(\sigma)(t_n)) \\   sfsubst(\sigma)(R(t_1,​\ldots,​t_n)) &=& R(nsubst(\sigma)(t_1),​\ldots,​nsubst(\sigma)(t_n)) \\
   sfsubst(\sigma)(t_1 = t_2) &=& (nsubst(\sigma)(t_1) = nsubst(\sigma)(t_n)) \\   sfsubst(\sigma)(t_1 = t_2) &=& (nsubst(\sigma)(t_1) = nsubst(\sigma)(t_n)) \\
-  sfsubst(\sigma)(\lnot F) &=& \\ +  sfsubst(\sigma)(\lnot F) &​=& ​\neg sfsubst(\sigma)(F) ​\\ 
-  sfsubst(\sigma)(F_1 \land F_2) &=& \\ +  sfsubst(\sigma)(F_1 \land F_2) &​=& ​ ​sfsubst(\sigma)(F_1) \wedge sfsubst(\sigma)(F_2) \\ 
-  sfsubst(\sigma)(\forall x.F) &=& \\ +  sfsubst(\sigma)(F_1 \lor F_2) &=& sfsubst(\sigma)(F_1) \vee sfsubst(\sigma)(F_2) ​\\ 
-  sfsubst(\sigma)(\exists x.F) &​=& ​+  sfsubst(\sigma)(\forall x.F) &​=& ​\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 
 +    \forall x. sfsubst(\sigma)(F) & \text{if} ~ x \notin \text{domain}(\sigma) \wedge x \notin \bigcup_{v \in \text{domain}(\sigma)} FV(v) \\ 
 +    sfsubst(\sigma)(\forall x^\prime. sfsubst(\{x \mapsto x^\prime \})(F)) & \text{else}} 
 +    \end{array} \right.\\ 
 +  sfsubst(\sigma)(\exists x.F) &​=& ​\left\{ \begin{array}{ll} 
 +    \exists x. sfsubst(\sigma)(F) & \text{if} ~ x \notin \text{domain}(\sigma) \wedge x \notin \bigcup_{v \in \text{domain}(\sigma)} FV(v) \\ 
 +    sfsubst(\sigma)(\exists x^\prime. sfsubst(\{x \mapsto x^\prime \})(F)) & \text{else}} 
 +    \end{array} \right.
 \end{array} \end{array}
-\]+\end{equation*}
  
 **Lemma:** Let $\sigma = \{x_1 \mapsto t_1,​\ldots,​x_n \mapsto t_n\}$ be a variable substitution and $t$ a term.  Then for every interpretation $I$, **Lemma:** Let $\sigma = \{x_1 \mapsto t_1,​\ldots,​x_n \mapsto t_n\}$ be a variable substitution and $t$ a term.  Then for every interpretation $I$,
-\[+\begin{equation*}
     e_F(sfsubst(\sigma)(F))(I) = e_F(F)(I[x_1 \mapsto e_T(t_1)(I),​\ldots,​ x_n \mapsto e_T(t_n)(I)])     e_F(sfsubst(\sigma)(F))(I) = e_F(F)(I[x_1 \mapsto e_T(t_1)(I),​\ldots,​ x_n \mapsto e_T(t_n)(I)])
-\]+\end{equation*}
  
 **Lemma:** $(\forall x.F) \models sfsubst(\{x \mapsto t\}(F)$. **Lemma:** $(\forall x.F) \models sfsubst(\{x \mapsto t\}(F)$.
 
sav08/substitutions_for_first-order_logic.txt · Last modified: 2015/04/21 17:30 (external edit)
 
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