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# Lab for Automated Reasoning and Analysis LARA

# Differences

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sav08:review_of_fixpoints_in_semantics [2008/04/30 11:05] vkuncak |
sav08:review_of_fixpoints_in_semantics [2015/04/21 17:30] (current) |
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Recall the definition of transitive closure for $r \subseteq D \times D$ a binary relation | Recall the definition of transitive closure for $r \subseteq D \times D$ a binary relation | ||

- | \[ | + | \begin{equation*} |

r^* = \bigcup_{n \ge 0} r^n | r^* = \bigcup_{n \ge 0} r^n | ||

- | \] | + | \end{equation*} |

where $r^0 = \Delta_D$. | where $r^0 = \Delta_D$. | ||

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This can be written as | This can be written as | ||

- | \[ | + | \begin{equation*} |

p = F(p) | p = F(p) | ||

- | \] | + | \end{equation*} |

where | where | ||

F(p) = if (c) then (s;p) else skip | F(p) = if (c) then (s;p) else skip | ||

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If $r_s$ is meaning of $s$ and $\Delta_c$ is meaning of //assume( c )//, the meaning is the fixpoint of function | If $r_s$ is meaning of $s$ and $\Delta_c$ is meaning of //assume( c )//, the meaning is the fixpoint of function | ||

- | \[ | + | \begin{equation*} |

f(r) = (\Delta_c \circ r_s \circ r) \cup \Delta_{\lnot c} | f(r) = (\Delta_c \circ r_s \circ r) \cup \Delta_{\lnot c} | ||

- | \] | + | \end{equation*} |

Any program can be reduced to a loop: | Any program can be reduced to a loop: | ||

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Program points are CFG nodes. Statements are labels on CFG edges. | Program points are CFG nodes. Statements are labels on CFG edges. | ||

- | We look at a particular way of representing and computing sets of reachable, splitting states by program counter (control-flow graph node): **collecting semantics**. | + | We look at a particular way of representing and computing sets of reachable states, splitting states by program counter (control-flow graph node): **collecting semantics**. |

$PS$ - the set of values of program variables (not including program counter). | $PS$ - the set of values of program variables (not including program counter). | ||

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The set of reachable states is defined as the least solution of constraints: | The set of reachable states is defined as the least solution of constraints: | ||

- | \[ | + | \begin{equation*} |

I \subseteq C(p_0) | I \subseteq C(p_0) | ||

- | \] | + | \end{equation*} |

- | \[ | + | \begin{equation*} |

\bigwedge_{(p_1,p_2) \in E} sp(C(p),r(c(p_1,p_2)))) \subseteq C(p_2) | \bigwedge_{(p_1,p_2) \in E} sp(C(p),r(c(p_1,p_2)))) \subseteq C(p_2) | ||

- | \] | + | \end{equation*} |

where $c(p_1,p_2)$ is command associated with edge $(p_1,p_2)$, and $r(c(p_1,p_2))$ is the relation giving semantics for this command. | where $c(p_1,p_2)$ is command associated with edge $(p_1,p_2)$, and $r(c(p_1,p_2))$ is the relation giving semantics for this command. | ||